The Protection of Civil and Political Rights by the Constitutional Court of Indonesia


THE PROTECTION OF CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS BY THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF INDONESIA

* Published in Indonesia Law Review, Vol 6, No. 2, August 2016, pp. 159-179

indonesia-law-reviewAbstract: One of important mechanisms considered effective to protect civil and political rights of the citizens in Indonesia is constitutional review. This mechanism was created after the constitutional reform by establishing the new Constitutional Court in 2003 as an independent and separate court from the Supreme Court. This article examines the development of human rights guaranteed in the Indonesian Constitution. It also provides a critical analysis of the Constitutional Court’s role in protecting civil and political rights in Indonesia through its landmark decisions on five categories, namely: (1) freedom of assembly and association; (2) freedom of opinion, speech and expression; (3) freedom of religion; (4) right to life; and (5) due process of law. This research was conducted based on qualitative research methodology. It used a non-doctrinal approach by researching the socio-political impacts of the Constitutional Court’s decisions. Although there are still inconsistencies in its decisions, the research concludes that the Constitutional Court has taken a step forward for a better protection of civil and political rights in Indonesia that never existed prior to the reform.

Keywords: Civil and Political Rights, Constitutional Court, Human Rights, Indonesian Constitution

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Abstrak: Salah satu mekanisme yang dianggap efektif untuk melindungi hak sipil dan politik warga negara di Indonesia adalah pengujian konstitusional. Mekanisme ini dibentuk pasca reformasi konstitusi dengan mendirikan Mahkamah Konstitusi pada 2003 sebagai peradilan yang independen dan terpisah dari Mahkamah Agung. Artikel ini menganalisa perkembangan hak asasi manusia yang dijamin di dalam UUD 1945. Selain itu, artikel ini juga memberikan analisa kritis terhadap peran Mahkamah Konstitusi dalam perlindungan hak sipil dan politik di Indonesia melalui putusan-putusan pentingnya  (landmark decisions) pada lima kategori, yaitu: (1) kebebasan untuk bekumpul dan berserikat; (2) kebebasan berpendapat, berbicara, dan berekspresi; (3) kebebasan beragama; (4) hak untuk hidup; dan (5) proses peradilan yang adil. Penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan pada metodologi penelitian kualitatif dan menggunakan pendekatan non-doktrinal dengan meneliti dampak sosio-politik dari putusan-putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi. Meskipun masih terdapat inkonsistensi di dalam putusannya, penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa Mahkamah Konstitusi telah memberikan kontribusi satu langkah ke depan yang lebih baik terhadap perlindungan hak sipil dan politik di Indonesia yang tidak pernah terjadi sebelum era reformasi.

Kata Kunci: Hak Sipil dan Politik, Mahkamah Konstitusi, Hak Asasi Manusia, Konstitusi Indonesia

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