Constitutional Complaint and Constitutional Question in the Indonesian Constitutional Court


A PROSPECT AND CHALLENGES FOR ADOPTING CONSTITUTIONAL COMPLAINT AND CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

* Published in Constitutional Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 2016, pp. 103-128

constitutional-reviewAbstract: A jurisdiction of the Indonesian Constitutional Court concerning constitutional adjudication is only limited to review the constitutionality of national law. There is no mechanism for challenging any decision or action made by public authorities that violate fundamental rights enshrined in the Indonesian Constitution. This article argues that constitutional complaint and constitutional question might be adopted as new jurisdictions of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in order to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights of its citizen. It also identifies main problems that will be faced by the Constitutional Court in exercising constitutional complaint and constitutional question. For instance, the Court will be burdened with too many cases as experienced by other countries. A clear mechanism for filtering applications lodged to the Constitutional Court and the time limit for deciding cases are important elements that have to be regulated to overcome the problems. In addition, the institutional structure of the Constitutional Court has to be improved, particularly to support its decision-making process.

Keywords: Constitutional Complaint, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Question, Fundamental Rights, Individual Application

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Abstrak

Kewenangan Mahkamah Konstitusi Indonesia terkait dengan ajudikasi konstitusional hanya terbatas menguji konstitusionalitas undang-undang. Tidak ada mekanisme untuk menguji suatu keputusan atau tindakan yang dibuat oleh pejabat publik yang melanggar hak fundamental sebagaimana dijamin di dalam Konstitusi Indonesia. Artikel ini menyimpulkan bahwa pengaduan konstitusional (constitutional complaint) dan pertanyaan konstitusional (constitutional question) dapat diadopsi sebagai kewenangan baru bagi Mahkamah Konstitusi Indonesia dalam upaya untuk memperkuat perlindungan hak fundamental warga negara. Artikel ini juga mengidentifikasi beberapa permasalahan utama yang akan dihadapi oleh Mahkamah Konstitusi dalam melaksanakan pengaduan konstitusional (constitutional complaint) dan constitutional question (pertanyaan konstitusional). Misalnya, Mahkamah akan dibebani dengan banyaknya perkara sebagaimana dialami oleh negara-negara lain. Mekanisme yang jelas untuk menyaring permohonan yang diajukan ke Mahkamah Konstitusi dan batas waktu untuk memutus perkara merupakan elemen penting yang harus diatur untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Selain itu, struktur kelembagaan Mahkamah Konstitusi juga harus disempurnakan, khususnya untuk mendukung proses pembuatan putusan.

Kata Kunci: Pengaduan Konstitusional, Pertanyaan Konstitusional, Hak Fundamental, Aplikasi Perorangan

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