Perlindungan terhadap Lingkungan dalam Perspektif Konstitusi


PERLINDUNGAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF KONSTITUSI

* Diterbitkan dalam Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 13, Nomor 4, Desember 2016, hlm. 766-787

jurnal-konstitusiAbstrak: Saat ini terdapat kecenderungan di berbagai negara yang ingin melindungi lingkungan dengan memasukkan prinsip-prinsip umum lingkungan hidup ke dalam konstitusi suatu negara ataupun konstitusi regional. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji sejauhmana perlindungan terhadap lingkungan dapat diberikan melalui pengadopsian norma-norma konstitusi tersebut. Kajian dilakukan menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan pendekatan normatif dan studi kepustakaan yang bersumber dari putusan-putusan pengadilan, peraturan perundang-undangan, buku, dan artikel jurnal ilmiah. Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahwa UUD 1945 telah memuat norma konstitusi dalam upaya perlindungan terhadap lingkungan. Akan tetapi, norma-norma konstitusi tersebut masih diposisikan sebagai faktor subsidair atau pendukung dalam pemenuhan hak asasi manusia dan perekonomian nasional. Untuk memperkuat perlindungan terhadap lingkungan di dalam UUD 1945 maka diperlukan perumusan ulang norma-norma konstitusi yang menempatkan lingkungan hidup lebih sebagai nilai-nilai dasar dalam penyelenggaraan negara dan kegiatan perekenomian nasional.

Kata Kunci: Mahkamah Konstitusi, Pengujian Konstitusionalitas, Pengujian Peraturan Perundang-Undangan, Sistem Hukum Indonesia

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A Critical Analysis of Judicial Appointment Process and Tenure of Constitutional Justice in Indonesia


A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF JUDICIAL APPOINTMENT PROCESS AND TENURE OF CONSTITUTIONAL JUSTICE IN INDONESIA

* Published in Hasanuddin Law Review, Vol. 2, Issue 2, August 2016, pp. 152-169

hasanuddin-law-reviewAbstract: The judicial appointment process is one of essential elements for maintaining judicial independence and public confidence of a court. This article analyses the practices of judicial appointment process exercised by three different main state institutions in selecting constitutional justice in Indonesia where the mechanism and process for selecting them have been implemented differently. It also examines the tenure of constitutional justice, which is a five-year term and can be renewed for one term only, that may lead to another problem concerning the reselection process of incumbent constitutional justices for their second term. The article concludes that the judicial appointment process and tenure of constitutional justice in Indonesia have to be improved. It suggests that if the proposing state institutions could not meet the principles of transparency, participation, objective and accountable required by the Constitutional Court Law, the judicial appointment process should be conducted by creating an independent Selection Committee or establishing a cooperation with the Judicial Commission. Additionally, the tenure of constitutional justices should also be revised for a unrenewable term with a longer period of nine or twelve years.

Keywords: Constitutional Court, Constitutional Justice, Judicial Appointment, Tenure

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The Protection of Civil and Political Rights by the Constitutional Court of Indonesia


THE PROTECTION OF CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS BY THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF INDONESIA

* Published in Indonesia Law Review, Vol 6, No. 2, August 2016, pp. 159-179

indonesia-law-reviewAbstract: One of important mechanisms considered effective to protect civil and political rights of the citizens in Indonesia is constitutional review. This mechanism was created after the constitutional reform by establishing the new Constitutional Court in 2003 as an independent and separate court from the Supreme Court. This article examines the development of human rights guaranteed in the Indonesian Constitution. It also provides a critical analysis of the Constitutional Court’s role in protecting civil and political rights in Indonesia through its landmark decisions on five categories, namely: (1) freedom of assembly and association; (2) freedom of opinion, speech and expression; (3) freedom of religion; (4) right to life; and (5) due process of law. This research was conducted based on qualitative research methodology. It used a non-doctrinal approach by researching the socio-political impacts of the Constitutional Court’s decisions. Although there are still inconsistencies in its decisions, the research concludes that the Constitutional Court has taken a step forward for a better protection of civil and political rights in Indonesia that never existed prior to the reform.

Keywords: Civil and Political Rights, Constitutional Court, Human Rights, Indonesian Constitution

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