LEGAL PROBLEMS OF DUALISM OF JUDICIAL REVIEW SYSTEM IN INDONESIA
* Published in Jurnal Dinamika Hukum, Vol. 16, No. 2, May 2016, pp. 187-195
Abstract: Indonesia implements dualism of judicial review system because there are two different judicial institutions that are granted the authority to review laws and regulations, namely the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. This research aims to analyse the problems caused by the dualism of judicial review system. It found two main legal problems of the current system. First, there is an inconsistency of decisions concerning judicial review cases for the same legal issues decided by the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. Second, there is no mechanism to review the constitutionality of People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) decisions and regulations under the level of law. Based on these findings, this research suggests that the authority to review all laws and regulations should be integrated under the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court.
Keywords: Constitutional Court, Constitutional Review, Judicial Review, Indonesian Legal System
Wacana amandemen kelima UUD 1945 kini bergulir terhadap ketentuan mengenai persyaratan calon presiden dan wakil presiden. Musyawarah Kerja Nasional PPP mengeluarkan salah satu rekomendasi yang mengusulkan agar orang Indonesia asli sebagai syarat kepala negara dimasukkan kembali dalam Pasal 6 ayat (1) UUD 1945.
Artinya, menurut pandangan PPP, warga negara Indonesia yang berdarah atau berketurunan asing tidak dapat menjadi presiden atau wakil presiden, setidak-tidaknya terhitung hingga derajat keturunan tertentu. Alasan lainnya, amendemen tersebut akan mengembalikan cita-cita pendiri bangsa.
Pertanyaannya, benarkah para pendiri bangsa memasukan frasa “orang Indonesia asli” sebagaimana makna yang dimaksudkan di atas? Artikel ini akan menjernihkan makna dari “orang Indonesia asli” yang terkandung di dalam UUD 1945 dengan menggunakan penafsiran original intent dan analisis sejarah Konstitusi Indonesia. Continue reading →
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF JUDICIAL APPOINTMENT PROCESS AND TENURE OF CONSTITUTIONAL JUSTICE IN INDONESIA
* Published in Hasanuddin Law Review, Vol. 2, Issue 2, August 2016, pp. 152-169
Abstract: The judicial appointment process is one of essential elements for maintaining judicial independence and public confidence of a court. This article analyses the practices of judicial appointment process exercised by three different main state institutions in selecting constitutional justice in Indonesia where the mechanism and process for selecting them have been implemented differently. It also examines the tenure of constitutional justice, which is a five-year term and can be renewed for one term only, that may lead to another problem concerning the reselection process of incumbent constitutional justices for their second term. The article concludes that the judicial appointment process and tenure of constitutional justice in Indonesia have to be improved. It suggests that if the proposing state institutions could not meet the principles of transparency, participation, objective and accountable required by the Constitutional Court Law, the judicial appointment process should be conducted by creating an independent Selection Committee or establishing a cooperation with the Judicial Commission. Additionally, the tenure of constitutional justices should also be revised for a unrenewable term with a longer period of nine or twelve years.
THE PROTECTION OF CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS BY THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF INDONESIA
* Published in Indonesia Law Review, Vol 6, No. 2, August 2016, pp. 159-179
Abstract: One of important mechanisms considered effective to protect civil and political rights of the citizens in Indonesia is constitutional review. This mechanism was created after the constitutional reform by establishing the new Constitutional Court in 2003 as an independent and separate court from the Supreme Court. This article examines the development of human rights guaranteed in the Indonesian Constitution. It also provides a critical analysis of the Constitutional Court’s role in protecting civil and political rights in Indonesia through its landmark decisions on five categories, namely: (1) freedom of assembly and association; (2) freedom of opinion, speech and expression; (3) freedom of religion; (4) right to life; and (5) due process of law. This research was conducted based on qualitative research methodology. It used a non-doctrinal approach by researching the socio-political impacts of the Constitutional Court’s decisions. Although there are still inconsistencies in its decisions, the research concludes that the Constitutional Court has taken a step forward for a better protection of civil and political rights in Indonesia that never existed prior to the reform.
Keywords: Civil and Political Rights, Constitutional Court, Human Rights, Indonesian Constitution