Perlindungan terhadap Lingkungan dalam Perspektif Konstitusi


PERLINDUNGAN TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF KONSTITUSI

* Diterbitkan dalam Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 13, Nomor 4, Desember 2016, hlm. 766-787

jurnal-konstitusiAbstrak: Saat ini terdapat kecenderungan di berbagai negara yang ingin melindungi lingkungan dengan memasukkan prinsip-prinsip umum lingkungan hidup ke dalam konstitusi suatu negara ataupun konstitusi regional. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji sejauhmana perlindungan terhadap lingkungan dapat diberikan melalui pengadopsian norma-norma konstitusi tersebut. Kajian dilakukan menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan pendekatan normatif dan studi kepustakaan yang bersumber dari putusan-putusan pengadilan, peraturan perundang-undangan, buku, dan artikel jurnal ilmiah. Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahwa UUD 1945 telah memuat norma konstitusi dalam upaya perlindungan terhadap lingkungan. Akan tetapi, norma-norma konstitusi tersebut masih diposisikan sebagai faktor subsidair atau pendukung dalam pemenuhan hak asasi manusia dan perekonomian nasional. Untuk memperkuat perlindungan terhadap lingkungan di dalam UUD 1945 maka diperlukan perumusan ulang norma-norma konstitusi yang menempatkan lingkungan hidup lebih sebagai nilai-nilai dasar dalam penyelenggaraan negara dan kegiatan perekenomian nasional.

Kata Kunci: Mahkamah Konstitusi, Pengujian Konstitusionalitas, Pengujian Peraturan Perundang-Undangan, Sistem Hukum Indonesia

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Legal Problems of Dualism of Judicial Review System in Indonesia


LEGAL PROBLEMS OF DUALISM OF JUDICIAL REVIEW SYSTEM IN INDONESIA

* Published in Jurnal Dinamika Hukum, Vol. 16, No. 2, May 2016, pp. 187-195

screen-shootAbstract: Indonesia implements dualism of judicial review system because there are two different judicial institutions that are granted the authority to review laws and regulations, namely the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. This research aims to analyse the problems caused by the dualism of judicial review system. It found two main legal problems of the current system. First, there is an inconsistency of decisions concerning judicial review cases for the same legal issues decided by the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. Second, there is no mechanism to review the constitutionality of People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) decisions and regulations under the level of law. Based on these findings, this research suggests that the authority to review all laws and regulations should be integrated under the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court.

Keywords: Constitutional Court, Constitutional Review, Judicial Review, Indonesian Legal System

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The Protection of Civil and Political Rights by the Constitutional Court of Indonesia


THE PROTECTION OF CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS BY THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF INDONESIA

* Published in Indonesia Law Review, Vol 6, No. 2, August 2016, pp. 159-179

indonesia-law-reviewAbstract: One of important mechanisms considered effective to protect civil and political rights of the citizens in Indonesia is constitutional review. This mechanism was created after the constitutional reform by establishing the new Constitutional Court in 2003 as an independent and separate court from the Supreme Court. This article examines the development of human rights guaranteed in the Indonesian Constitution. It also provides a critical analysis of the Constitutional Court’s role in protecting civil and political rights in Indonesia through its landmark decisions on five categories, namely: (1) freedom of assembly and association; (2) freedom of opinion, speech and expression; (3) freedom of religion; (4) right to life; and (5) due process of law. This research was conducted based on qualitative research methodology. It used a non-doctrinal approach by researching the socio-political impacts of the Constitutional Court’s decisions. Although there are still inconsistencies in its decisions, the research concludes that the Constitutional Court has taken a step forward for a better protection of civil and political rights in Indonesia that never existed prior to the reform.

Keywords: Civil and Political Rights, Constitutional Court, Human Rights, Indonesian Constitution

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Constitutional Complaint and Constitutional Question in the Indonesian Constitutional Court


A PROSPECT AND CHALLENGES FOR ADOPTING CONSTITUTIONAL COMPLAINT AND CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

* Published in Constitutional Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 2016, pp. 103-128

constitutional-reviewAbstract: A jurisdiction of the Indonesian Constitutional Court concerning constitutional adjudication is only limited to review the constitutionality of national law. There is no mechanism for challenging any decision or action made by public authorities that violate fundamental rights enshrined in the Indonesian Constitution. This article argues that constitutional complaint and constitutional question might be adopted as new jurisdictions of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in order to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights of its citizen. It also identifies main problems that will be faced by the Constitutional Court in exercising constitutional complaint and constitutional question. For instance, the Court will be burdened with too many cases as experienced by other countries. A clear mechanism for filtering applications lodged to the Constitutional Court and the time limit for deciding cases are important elements that have to be regulated to overcome the problems. In addition, the institutional structure of the Constitutional Court has to be improved, particularly to support its decision-making process.

Keywords: Constitutional Complaint, Constitutional Court, Constitutional Question, Fundamental Rights, Individual Application

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