Akses Terhadap Keadilan bagi Masyarakat Rentan di Mahkamah Konstitusi


AKSES TERHADAP KEADILAN BAGI MASYARAKAT RENTAN DI MAHKAMAH KONSTITUSI

Pan Mohamad Faiz dan Oly Viana Agustine

(Artikel diterbitkan dalam Prosiding Indonesian Judicial Reform Forum (IJRF) 2018 yang diselenggarakan pada 15-16 Januari 2018 di Jakarta, hlm. 122-140)

Cover onlyAbstrak: Sebagai pelaku kekuasaan kehakiman, Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK) memiliki kewenangan untuk menguji konstitusionalitas undang-undang. Pihak yang berhak mengajukan permohonan dalam perkara pengujian undang-undang tersebut terdiri dari perorangan warga negara Indonesia, kesatuan masyarakat hukum adat, badan hukum publik atau privat, dan lembaga negara. Luasnya cakupan pemohon yang dapat memiliki kedudukan hukum (legal standing) tersebut sejatinya telah membuka lebar akses keadilan bagi masyarakat rentan untuk melindungi dan memperjuangkan hak-hak konstitusionalnya. Tulisan ini menganalisis sejauhmana MK memberikan akses keadilan bagi masyarakat rentan, baik yang bersifat teknis dan prosedural maupun alasan substantif dalam putusan. Dalam konteks ini, tidak sedikit permohonan pengujian undang-undang yang putusannya bersifat erga omnes diajukan oleh orang-perorang tanpa didampingi kuasa hukum atau kelompok warga bersama dengan lembaga swadaya masyarakat (NGOs). Tulisan ini menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat putusan-putusan MK yang telah memperkuat dan memulihkan hak konstitusional bagi masyarakat rentan yang terdiri dari anak-anak, perempuan, penyandang disabilitas, buruh migran, dan masyarakat hukum adat. Namun demikian, akses keadilan bagi masyarakat rentan di MK belum dapat optimal tersedia. Sebab, MK memiliki keterbatasan kewenangan untuk mengadili perkara pengaduan konstitusional (constitutional complaint) yang justru menjadi instrumen terpenting bagi MK di banyak negara guna melindungi hak-hak konstitusional warga negara mereka. Selain itu, MK perlu mempertimbangkan untuk menyediakan semacam pos bantuan hukum bekerjasama dengan lembaga penyedia bantuan hukum bagi masyarakat rentan yang memerlukan pendampingan dan nasihat hukum secara pro bono.

Kata Kunci: Akses Keadilan; Mahkamah Konstitusi; Masyarakat Rentan; Pengujian
Undang-Undang.

Artikel selengkapnya dapat dibaca dan diunduh di sini.

ACCESS TO JUSTICE FOR VULNERABLE GROUPS IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

Pan Mohamad Faiz and Oly Viana Agustine

(This article was published in the Proceeding of Indonesian Judicial Reform Forum (IJRF) 2018 held on 15-16 January 2018 in Jakarta, pp. 122-140)

Abstract: As a judicial institution exercising judicial power, the Constitutional Court has authority to review the constitutionality of laws. The parties entitled to lodge an application in constitutional review case consist of individual Indonesian citizens, indigenous peoples, public or private legal entities, and state institutions. The extensive scope of applicants who can have legal standing has provided a wide access to justice for vulnerable groups for protecting and defending their constitutional rights. This paper analyses to what extent the Constitutional Court provides access to justice for vulnerable groups, both in technical and procedural matters as well as substantive reasons in the Court’s decisions. In this context, many constitutional review cases, which its decisions are erga omnes, are submitted by individuals without any legal representations or a group of people having the same interest represented by non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper concludes that there are Constitutional Court’s decisions deemed to have strengthened and restored the constitutional rights for vulnerable groups consisting of children, women, persons with disabilities, migrant workers and indigenous people. However, the access to justice for vulnerable groups in the Constitutional Court has not been optimally fulfilled since the Court has limited authorities to exercise constitutional complaint cases that become the essential instrument for the constitutional courts in many countries to protect their citizen’s constitutional rights. In addition, the Constitutional Court should consider providing a legal aid post in cooperation with legal aid providers for vulnerable groups who need legal assistance and advice for free.

Keywords: Access to Justice; Constitutional Court; Constitutional Review; Vulnerable
Groups.

This full article can be read and downloaded here.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s