Mengawal Demokrasi Melalui Constitutional Review (Bagian II)


MENGAWAL DEMOKRASI MELALUI CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW:

Sembilan Pilar Demokrasi Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi[1]

Oleh: Pan Mohamad Faiz, S.H., M.C.L.[2]

(Disampaikan dalam Buku ”UI  untuk Bangsa 2009”) – BAGIAN II

… Sambungan dari Bagian I …


6. Mengubah Sistem Keterpilihan Nomor Urut  menjadi Suara Terbanyak

Dalam Putusan Nomor 22-24/PUU-VI/2008 bertanggal 23 Desember 2008, di satu sisi MK telah memperkuat alas hukum atas Pasal 55 ayat (2) UU 10/2008 terkait penentuan bakal calon perempuan, dan di sisi lain mencabut Pasal 214 huruf a, huruf b, huruf c, huruf d, dan huruf e UU 10/2008 terkait sistem keterpilihan calon anggota legislatif berdasarkan nomor urut caleg yang ditetapkan oleh partai politik.

Pada perkara ini MK menegaskan bahwa Pasal 55 ayat (2) UU 10/2008 yang menentukan setiap tiga orang bakal calon terdapat sekurang-kurangnya satu orang calon perempuan merupakan kebijakan dalam rangka memenuhi affirmative action (tindakan sementara) bagi perempuan di bidang politik sebagai tindak lanjut dari Konvensi Perempuan se-Dunia Tahun 1995 di Beijing dan berbagai konvensi internasional yang telah diratifikasi.[3] Menurut MK, affirmative action yang juga disebut sebagai reverse discrimination akan memberi kesempatan kepada perempuan demi terbentuknya kesetaraan gender dalam lapangan peran yang sama (level playing-field) antara perempuan dan laki-laki.

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Mengawal Demokrasi Melalui Constitutional Review (Bagian I)


MENGAWAL DEMOKRASI MELALUI CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW:

Sembilan Pilar Demokrasi Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi[1]

Oleh: Pan Mohamad Faiz, S.H., M.C.L.[2]

(Disampaikan dalam Buku ”UI  untuk Bangsa 2009”) – BAGIAN I

A. PENDAHULUAN

Perubahan sistem politik dan kekuasaan negara pasca terjadinya amandemen UUD 1945 telah membawa angin segar bagi perkembangan cita demokrasi dan konstitusionalisme Indonesia yang salah satunya menyebabkan terjadinya pergeseran kekuasaan supremasi parlemen (parliament supremacy) menuju supremasi konstitusi (constitutional supremacy). Kedaulatan rakyat (people’s sovereignty) yang dahulu berada di tangan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR), kini pun telah berubah menjadi terletak di tangan rakyat.

Penguatan mekanisme kontrol saling jaga dan menyimbangkan (checks and balances mechanism) antarcabang kekuasaan negara juga menjadi agenda utama dalam proses amandemen UUD 1945.[3] Salah satu lembaga negara utama (main state organ) yang dibentuk berdasarkan hasil amandemen UUD 1945 untuk menjalankan mekanisme checks and balances tersebut adalah Mahkamah Konstitusi.[4]

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Human Rights Protection and Constitutional Review in Indonesia


HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION AND CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW:
A Basic Foundation of Sustainable Development in Indonesia
By:
Pan Mohamad Faiz *
(The paper has been presented at Indonesian Students Scientific Meeting 2008
13-15 May 2008 in Delft, The Netherlands and the Presenter awarded as the Best Oralist Presentation (Lecture) at the Conference)

Abstract:

Many people strongly believe that rising the challenge of sustainable development can help the country go forward in a better direction. One of the best approaches for promoting the sustainable development of Indonesia can be viewed from the perspective of human rights protection of the people. Basically, sustainable development encompasses three pillars based on environmental, economic, and social values that are interdependent and that mutually reinforce human rights. Moreover between sustainable development and human rights there is an inseparable relationship and a respect for human rights that has been recognized as a prerequisite for development. In this context, the current paper seeks to present an integrated conception and the relationship between these two formations. The paper also presents the measures of human rights protection, particularly constitutional review mechanism before the Court as the newest instrument established after the amendment of 1945 Constitution.

Index Term: Constitutional Complaint, Constitutional Review, Human Rights, Indonesia, Sustainable Development
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Constitution and Sustainable Development


CONSTITUTIONAL APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT
Pan Mohamad Faiz, New Delhi

Note: This article was published in The Jakarta Post [18/02/2008]

According to the Human Development Report 2007, launched by the United Nation Development Program, the Human Development Index (HDI) for Indonesia is 0.728, giving the country a ranking of 107th out of 177 countries, and 7th among the Southeast Asian countries.

The most significant reason for this situation is the drawbacks caused by sustainable development in Indonesia. Some people strongly believe that raising the challenge of sustainable development can help the Indonesian policy debate go forward in a better direction.

At the heart of the problem is how to deal with promoting the sustainable development of Indonesia. One of the best approaches can be viewed from the perspective of human rights protection for the people.

Basically, sustainable development encompasses three pillars based on environmental, economic, and social values that are interdependent and mutually reinforce human rights. Between sustainable development and human rights there is an inseparable relationship and a respect for human rights that has been recognized as a prerequisite for development.